This project is an update of previous work on bioenergy subsidies for the NRDC. It has updated inventories of subsidies for electricity generation from solid biomass in 12 key European countries. The work identified an increasing trend in total subsidies across these countries, although trends vary per country. The study also (1) updated statistics on the uses of solid biomass for energy purposes; (2) analysed the potential impacts if subsidies were instead spent on either home insulation or heat pumps – case studies were prepared for the UK and the Netherlands; (3) analysed the potential cost of Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) to highlight its high cost, the case of Drax power in the UK was used to illustrate this case.