Assessment of the potential of sustainable fuels in transport

The solutions for transport decarbonisation should ideally balance cost, energy, resource availability and resource efficiency. However, the capacity of different options varies depending on the type of service being considered. In transport, the identification of optimal solutions varies by mode, vehicle, mission/usage profile of the vehicles. Other parameters defining optimal solutions vary by geography, given the difference in endowment of primary materials (e.g. biomass and/or minerals) and availability of energy (e.g. because of differences in terms of endowment in solar and/or wind energy to produce electricity).

This study reviews the potential sustainable fuels for decarbonising the transport sector, including their sustainability risks and costs, as well as their relevance for various modes until mid-century (2050). It assesses existing transport-wide and sector-specific scenarios for alternative fuel deployment in transport, discusses the investment and finance implications of the transition to sustainable fuels and provides policy recommendations.

A rapid-response briefing “Assessment of the potential of sustainable fuels in transport in the context of the Ukraine/Russia crisis” was also published as part of the study (