This study provided technical support in the European Commission’s latest (2022) revision of the primary energy factors (PEFs) of energy carriers, as required by the Energy Efficiency Directive. A significant reduction in primary energy use is part of the EU’s flagship energy policy targets, and the accuracy of conversion factors, like the PEF itself, play a crucial role in the correct determination of these goals. The rapidly changing energy mix and end-use, however, renders the previously applied PEF values outdated. For the purpose of revision and verification, the methodologies of PEF calculation applied by different member states of the EU is explored and compared, establishing the soundness of their underlying assumptions and the overall validity of their approaches. The possibility and utility of extending the PEF method to other, previously not defined energy carriers is investigated in the study, also incorporating extensive stakeholder feedback based on the workshops organized as part of the project.

To this end, this study included a review of the default PEFs reflecting the estimated average EU generation efficiency referred to in Annex IV of Directive 2012/27/EU and possible extension of the approach to other energy carriers. As part of this study, Trinomics conducted a comparative analysis between the EU-27 Member States’ reporting practices and computational methodologies of the applied PEF values.

You can find the report in the website of the EU publications office: