Moving towards Zero-Emission Steel: Technologies Available, Prospects, Timeline and Costs

This study is assessing the European steel industry’s possible decarbonisation pathways in light of the European Commission’s “Fit for 55” package, by evaluating available technology options and the adequacy of available funding streams. The paper shows that options based solely on existing production processes have limited potential to achieve the required emission reductions. Full decarbonisation options will require the widespread availability of green electricity, hydrogen and/or CCS/CCUS infrastructure. It is important that flexibility in the choice of technology decarbonisation options is maintained to account for differences in regional characteristics including natural resources and infrastructure.