Indicators’ timeliness is vital for allowing quick and adequate policy response by policy makers. Early estimates and nowcasting are emerging techniques that are increasingly being used as a way to bridge the gap between the most recent reported observations of an indicator and its, as yet unreported, or even unmeasured, current value. Trinomics staff have led this project on nowcasting or and target setting for resource efficiency indicators together with Ecorys, Cambridge Econometrics and Copenhagen Resource Institute (CRI). The purpose of this assignment was to map the current and potential future availability of resource efficiency indicators, assess their potential for early estimates and nowcasts and target setting. Some of these methods were applied to material flow indicators.